Archive for the 'Learning' Category

Ch. 24: Writing for myself and others

write verb
/rīt/
mark (letters, words, or other symbols) on a surface, typically paper, with a pen, pencil, or similar implement
compose, write, and send to someone

Writing for myself and others has been a part of my work for about as long as I can remember.

I learned early that what you had to say was taken more seriously after you published an article in a national journal, and even more so if you wrote a book.

In the 1970s, as I progressed from my mid 20s to early 30s, I began to write for state and national education journals. 

The first of those articles, published in 1974 in Educational Leadership, was about ALPHA, the alternative high school I helped design 2 years earlier. That, for me, was like arriving at the mountain top without having had to climb the foothills of publications with more modest readership in which much of my later writing would appear. 

Later, I would write about alternative education and other topics for national teacher and administrator magazines and for counseling journals (I had earned a doctorate in counseling during the 1970s).

As is often the case, one thing led to another, and through various experiences with teachers and administrators in Southeast Michigan I observed the stress and burnout that was prevalent during the late 1970s.

So I learned as much as I could about teacher stress and burnout (although far less was known about it then), taught workshops on that subject, wrote articles, and appeared on radio and TV shows. 

My first book, for school counselors, appeared in 1981 on the subject of stress management. It was followed shortly thereafter with another book about teacher stress and burnout.

The Northwest Staff Development Council published a newsletter for 3,900 consortium teachers and administrators to which I contributed a monthly essay on professional development.

Beginning in the mid-1980s as executive director of the National Staff Development Council it was as if I had inherited barrels of ink and giant rolls of paper that I could use over the next 23 years to share my thoughts on professional learning in the Council’s newsletters and journal as well as in books on that subject and on leadership for NSDC and other organizations. 

To what do I owe whatever writing talent I have and my publishing career? Four reasons come to mind:

• Nancy Anderson, who in a high school senior English class praised my writing and inspired me to engage in the hard work of putting my thoughts on paper and to do whatever revision was necessary to make my message as clear and persuasive as possible. A couple of decades later I was fortunate to see Nancy again and to share with her my gratitude for the difference her teaching had made in my life.

• Bill Miller, a senior administrator in a regional education center, encouraged me to publish widely and to use every presentation as the potential content for an article for a state or national organization. Because of this encouragement, I learned how to target my message to superintendents, principals, teachers, and school counselors, publishing dozens of articles in the 1970s and beyond.

• As an editor for Council newsletters, journals, and books during the first decade of my employment I learned how to better view writing from the perspective of readers. NSDC publications sought articles from teachers and administrators who were often first-time authors, which meant providing them with generous amounts of encouragement and supportive editing. Helping them express themselves clearly and concisely taught me a great deal about the kind of writing I wanted to produce.

• Perhaps most importantly, I would trace whatever skills I have as a writer to my love of reading and of reading widely on diverse topics.

I have no memory of books being read in my home, except perhaps by my grandmother who lived with us. At some point, I read the Hardy Boys mysteries, but I don’t remember reading anything in junior high or high school other than what was required, which I seldom did eagerly. But at some point, perhaps in college or graduate school, my appreciation of reading grew until it became an essential part of my daily life.

Over the decades I became an advocate for all types of writing, from journaling to blogging, if for no other reason than the clarity of thought it provides. 

One of the most important discoveries I made was that writing is a powerful method of learning, not just a means to demonstrate that learning. I don’t know how I would have formulated my views on complex issues without freezing my often fast-moving thoughts in writing to examine their clarity, logic, and persuasiveness.

I can’t imagine my professional life without the benefits writing offered, the ideas it enabled me to explore, and the problems it helped me solve. 

So I extend my gratitude to Nancy Anderson, Bill Miller, the many authors who helped me understand the power of the written word, and to readers over the decades whose responses to my writing advanced my thinking and capacity to lead.

While writing has been and is an important method of learning and communication for me, I know that it is not for everyone. What processes enable your clarity and professional learning?

[This post is one in a series from a memoir titled, “It Might Have Been Otherwise.”]

Ch. 17: NSDC II: Settling in for 23 years

settle verb
set·tle | \ ˈse-tᵊl
to place so as to stay
to establish in residence
to furnish with inhabitants

It is hard to capture the essence of my almost 30-year association with the National Staff Development Council, my NSDC II. (In a previous post I noted that my previous employer was the Northwest Staff Development Council, NSDC I.)

In the late 1970s and early 80s I served the organization as a trustee and president. 

Then, in 1984, Pat Zigarmi, the Council’s executive secretary, decided it was time to move on, and the Board of Trustees sought a new executive secretary at an annual salary of $13,000. 

I was selected and immediately “promoted“ to Executive Director because the Board of Trustees wanted me to have a title on par with leaders of other professional associations. 

I maintained that job and title for the next 23 years before deciding, like Pat Zigarmi before me, that in 2007 it was time to move on. 

In 1984 NSDC had about 800 members. It published a monthly newsletter, The Developer, and a semi-annual journal, the Journal of Staff Development. It also sponsored an annual conference and offered institutes around the country on effective professional development.

The only other employee then was Shirley Havens, a part-time administrative assistant, whose office was in her Oxford, Ohio home. In that tradition, I established an office in my home from which I worked throughout my tenure with the organization.

That pattern of housing staff members in their homes continued for almost 20 years as Stephanie Hirsh was added in Dallas as deputy executive director, Joellen Killion in the Denver area managing special projects, and Joan Richardson near Detroit overseeing publications. Eventually, office suites were established in Oxford and Dallas. 

I learned many important things in my 23 years with NSDC, some of them looking inward at organizational leadership and others looking outward at the field of professional development.

About organizations, especially those with multiple work sites (not unlike school systems), I learned: 

• first and foremost, to hire well, as illustrated by the staff members mentioned above, and to follow that hiring with a generous amount of autonomy within a guiding structure. That hiring included a careful consideration of the complimentary strengths each person would bring to NSDC’s leadership team.

• that disciplined action required a thoughtfully conceived and ambitious strategic plan, the first of which was adopted in 1986 and updated every 5 years thereafter. This series of plans provided a blueprint for our work, and it also allowed for improvisation based on what we were learning in the process of implementation.

• that a meaningful strategic plan begins with a clear statement of beliefs; is motivated by goals so ambitious that they require individuals to leave their comfort zones to make deep changes in their beliefs, understanding, and/or habits; and concludes with strategies that guide staff members’ daily work.

It took many hours of serious, candid discussion to reach consensus among board members and participating staff regarding a relatively small number of beliefs that would serve as the foundation of the plan. 

While this extended discussion of beliefs meant that we moved slowly at the beginning of planning, we quickly picked up speed because many decisions were much easier to make with a solid foundation of shared beliefs.

The Council’s stretch goals took us into the realm of the highly improbable but remotely possible. These goals required that we think differently about our structures and processes, which is always challenging when current practices and results seem “good enough.”

• that teamwork among staff members and with trustees was essential to the achievement of the organization’s stretch goals. We continuously aspired to use team members’ strengths to their best advantage within a clear and focused strategic structure.

• about the power of consensus decision making that extended beyond the strategic plan to all important decisions made by the Board of Trustees and staff. 

We defined consensus as everyone being able to authentically say, “Although this decision may not be my first choice, I can live with it and will support it when I leave this room.” That definition meant that when someone said they could not live with a decision the group took those objections seriously and sought to find a win-win alternative. When such an alternative could not be found, which rarely happened, the group’s leader, sometimes me, would make the final decision.

• about the value to educators provided by professional associations that connect them to a larger purpose and to like-minded people. For many NSDC members the Council was one of the few places in which others “just got it” without a need to explain or justify the importance of their work.

Looking outward at the field of professional development I came to:

• more deeply understand the fundamental role of school and system leaders in continuous improvement. It is simply impossible to have professional learning that benefits all students in all classrooms without knowledgeable and engaged system leaders, principals, and teacher leaders, all equally involved in its planning and implementation.

• better appreciate the power of school culture to determine the quality of teaching and learning across classrooms. Culture truly does trump innovation.

During my final years with NSDC I became increasingly aware that I missed the sustained, direct contact I had previously experienced with teachers and administrators in their schools.

Much of my work at NSDC was with groups formed for a brief moment in time whose members I would likely not see again. While such groups are appropriate to introduce a topic for expanded study and practice, they are insufficient to change the quality of professional learning, improve teamwork, alter the culture of a school, and, most importantly, affect teaching and learning.

That awareness, after 23 years of employment with NSDC, led me to conceptualize the next phase of my professional life as one that would enable me to work directly with administrator and teacher leadership teams over time focused on a relatively small number of essential leadership skills. 

And so in 2007 I left the security of a job I enjoyed with people I admired for a new chapter in my professional life that I could only see in outline, much as I had done 35 years earlier with ALPHA and then with NSDC I.

Have there been times in your career when you knew it was time to move on, and how did you navigate that transition?

(I had the privilege for most of my employment at NSDC II to have as my colleagues Shirley Havens, Leslie Miller, Stephanie Hirsh, Joellen Killion, and Joan Richardson, who each in their own way strengthened our leadership team, contributed to the quality of Council work, and enriched my life. For all of those people I am appreciative and grateful, as well as for countless NSDC presidents, trustees, staff members, and volunteers too numerous to mention.)

[This post is one in a series from a memoir titled, “It Might Have Been Otherwise.”]

Ch. 13: Deepening the conversation

con·ver·sa·tion noun
/ˌkänvərˈsāSH(ə)
a talk, especially an informal one, between two or more people, in which news and ideas are exchanged

In the mid to late-1970s I was teaching at ALPHA and finishing my doctoral dissertation, which investigated what high school students shared with others about their lives. I also taught introductory counseling and group counseling courses at the University of Michigan and Eastern Michigan University.

I believed then and now that trust is the bedrock of a strong learning community, no matter the age of the students.

I also believed that trust required a deeper understanding and respect among community members, and that those qualities flowed from authentic conversations.

So I sought a rationale and organizer for such conversations that I hoped would appeal to students of all ages, and found one in Why Am I Afraid to Tell You Who I Am? by John Powell, a Jesuit priest, who described five levels of communication:

5: Cliche Conversation, which is shallow and filled with factoids. Trivia is shared and the conversation is “safe.”

4: Facts About Others, rather than about ourselves. This level also includes facts about events and things.

3: Ideas and Judgements, a level at which we are beginning to share more deeply about ourselves, but in a guarded way.

2: Feelings, a level at which through our emotions we begin to offer our uniqueness to others, especially when our feelings are paired with our ideas and judgments. Such disclosure is riskier because it answers the question posed in the title of Powell’s book, Why Am I Afraid to Tell You Who I Am?—I am afraid because if I reveal my deeper self to you and you reject it, you are rejecting the real me, not a facade.

1: Peak Communication, the deepest and most authentic form of communication, in which one person’s disclosure evokes similar disclosure in others as participants progressively reveal more of themselves.

Powell’s organizer explains that the simplest and most direct way to deepen conversations, whether with colleagues, friends, or family members, is by revealing something of significance about ourselves and inviting others to do the same while listening carefully and nonjudgmentally to their responses. 

Of course, just as some crave more authentic conversations, others for a variety of reasons are content with Powell’s levels 4 and 5, finding the deeper levels more emotionally demanding or riskier than they believe the effort is worth.

I recently came across a blog post by Brett MacKay and Kate MacKay about the role of conversation in character development and other forms of learning, benefits I had not considered in the 1970s.

The MacKays argue that such conversations:

• are a mental discipline that require that we pay attention to what we say, “…abstaining from non-sequiturs, excessive negativity and complaints, gossip, and inadvertent insults to the person to whom we are speaking and those they know.”

• are “…a singular exercise in being present in the moment. To engage it fully you must shut down the distractions of the outside world and disentangle from devices. To listen attentively to another, you must continually bring the mind back to the present each time it wanders. You must commit to the idea that there is nowhere else you’d rather be, than right there, right then, with this other person…. In the give and take of conversation, each partner offers responses that address and build on what the other person says, and the deftness of those responses can only grow out of attentive listening. 

• require courage because “…every step into conversation is a step into the unknown. How will it go? Will it result in connection? Intimacy? Embarrassment? Hostility?”

• promote deeper clarity and increase our influence as “We find that opinions which seemed crystal clear in our heads, emerge as a confused jumble when we attempt to articulate them…. People rarely change as the result of being lectured. A direct haranguing produces defensiveness rather than transformation.”

• can have long-term effects because “…something you say can strike another with meteoric impact. Indeed, sometimes a single conversation can change the entire direction of someone’s life.”

• “…fulfill the most basic of human needs: to be recognized, acknowledged, seen.”

I believed then and continue to believe now that we can choose the kind of conversations we want to have and extend invitations to others to participate with us in the adventure of enriching relationships, building character, and deepening learning.

What types of conversations do you find most satisfying, and what do you do to evoke them? 

Have you ever had a conversation that struck you with “meteoric impact,” that changed you in a significant way?

[This post is one in a series from a memoir titled, “It Might Have Been Otherwise.”]

Ch. 7: The power of beliefs

be·lief noun
/bəˈlēf/
something one accepts as true or real; a firmly held opinion or conviction

In 1972, during my fourth year of teaching, the curriculum department of my school district offered a two-day workshop on “mastery teaching.”

As I recall I was the only teacher from my high school to attend, but I remember little else about the workshop other than that by its conclusion I was convinced that student learning would improve if I changed a few things in my classroom.

Basically, I came away from the workshop convinced that if I gave students more opportunities to learn in different ways and multiple opportunities to demonstrate that learning, almost all of my students would learn virtually everything I wanted them to know.

I remember telling my students about what I had learned and of my newfound belief that they could become more successful in my class than any of us had previously thought possible.

I also remember one of my more astute students asking if their improved learning would be reflected in better grades, say As or Bs. Because I couldn’t recall grading being discussed in the workshop, I made up an answer on the spot – yes, they would receive As and Bs if they learned the appropriate amount of content. Put another way, I would be grading based on demonstrated competence rather than on “the curve” or any variation of it.

But by the end of that day I realized I had a problem, and that problem was my principal’s belief that the job of a teacher was to shift the normal curve of distribution (“the curve”) in a positive direction, which meant that there would be more As and Bs than Ds and Fs, but that there should continue to be some students who received low grades.

These low grades, my principal believed, would reflect a teacher’s high standards.

So I made an appointment with my principal to discuss the problem. He expressed skepticism that all students could learn enough to pass no matter what methods teachers used, but he allowed me to experiment for the few remaining months of the school year if I agreed to bring him samples of my students’ quizzes, tests, and other work so that he could be assured I had not lowered my standards.

And that’s the way it was for several months until the conclusion of the school year. I brought him my students’ work, and he grudgingly let me continue, at least until our next meeting.

That was the first time, but not the last, I would experience the power of leaders’ and teachers’ beliefs to positively or negatively affect teaching and learning in their schools or classrooms.

But in June an unexpected and once-in-a-career opportunity arose when that same principal invited me to join three other teachers in creating an alternative high school, which I’ll say more about next time.

What was or is your experience with the power of beliefs to positively or negatively affect student learning?

[This post is one in a series from a memoir titled, “It Might Have Been Otherwise.”]

Robust professional development for the benefit of all students

It is time in this series of reprised posts to review the essentials of “robust professional development” that I published in November 2013.

The 6 fundamental ingredients of robust professional development

Powerful professional development has as its primary and overarching purpose the creation of professional learning that affects what teachers believe, understand, say, and do on a daily basis for the benefit of all students. (To better understand the distinction between professional development and professional learning, please read this.)

To that end, such professional development:

Deepens teachers’ knowledge of the content they teach, including pedagogical content knowledge. It also expands teachers’ repertoire of research-based instructional skills to teach that content and provides classroom management skills appropriate to their settings. For the most part, such development will be individualized or occur in small-groups based on self assessment, teacher evaluation, standardized test scores, student work, and other sources of information.

Provides teachers with the classroom assessment skills—what experts call “assessment for learning.” Such skills allow teachers to diagnose student learning problems and to monitor in real time gains in student learning resulting from newly-acquired classroom practices.

• Is embedded in teachers’ daily work. Job embedded does not mean having workshops occur in schools rather than district meeting rooms. Instead, it requires that the learning be closely linked to school and classroom-specific student learning problems with frequent opportunities for problem solving and hands-on assistance from colleagues and coaches.

Provides sustained classroom assistance in implementing new instructional skills. Teachers regularly receive individualized feedback and meaningful support from skillful coaches and others within their professional communities.

Has at its core a small team of teachers who meet regularly as part of their work day to plan lessons, critique student work, and assist in problem solving.

Is surrounded by a culture that encourages innovation, experimentation, and continuous improvement. The creation of such cultures is a fundamental responsibility of principals and teacher leaders.

These attributes are synergistic, with each enriching the others. 

And the absence of any one of these six attributes can seriously diminish the likelihood that the overall effort will significant improve the quality of teaching in every classroom and the learning of all students. 

What have I missed?

Pay attention to the fundamentals of professional learning

Sometimes the “bells and whistles” of new things can distract us from the fundamentals, the things that make the biggest difference and form the basis of all that follows.

In classrooms, those fundamentals include close reading, clear and compelling writing, and thoughtful conversations informed by attentive listening.

Those same fundamentals apply to professional development, as this post from February 2014 underscores.

4 fundamental practices for cultivating professional literacy

Generous amounts of close purposeful reading, rereading, writing, and talking, as underemphasized as they are in K-12 education, are the essence of authentic literacy. These simple activities are the foundation for a trained, powerful mind.…” —Mike Schmoker

Many years ago in an interview for a NSDC (now Learning Forward) publication Phil Schlechty told me, “If you don’t have time to read, you don’t have time to lead.” 

For my own purposes I amended his adage to read, “If you don’t make time to read, write, speak, and listen in ways that promote professional learning, you don’t have time to lead.” 

Just as we desire to cultivate literacy among K-12 students, it is essential that education leaders take the time—even just a few minutes a day—to cultivate their own  professional literacy and that of others for the benefit of all their students. 

Professional literacy means the development of intellectual depth and fluency regarding values, beliefs, ideas, and practices that guide day-to-day decision making. Its acquisition requires cognitively-demanding processes, in contrast to the minimal engagement of the “sit and get” sessions that continue to dominate too large a share of “professional development.”

While professional literacy can be acquired through various means, my experience has taught me that four particularly powerful learning processes—speaking and listening with the intention to learn, reading, and writing—are the fundamental practices for cultivating leaders’ professional literacy. 

Speaking isn’t often thought of as a source of learning for the speaker. But leaders can learn from their own speaking when they pay close attention to both their own words—a kind of metacognition in which the speaker monitors his or her own thinking for unexamined assumptions, logical inconsistencies, and so on—and the effects of those words on others. 

Committed, attentive listening by leaders deepens their understanding of the subject at hand and the perspectives of others. It is also an essential first step in influencing the views of others, an orientation that Stephen Covey described as “seek first to understand.”

Careful reading promotes leaders’ learning when they not only take in information but respond actively to it by making comparisons with what they already understand and believe and by raising new questions for exploration. Such reading enables leaders to be engaged with the minds of individuals who they may never meet. 

Because writing is thought made visible, it promotes learning by enabling leaders to refine their ideas, examine their logical consistency, and determine the most concise and precise means for their expression. Journal writing and blogging are two common and especially powerful means for such reflection. And blogging also enables leaders to actively engage with the perspectives of readers who offer their comments.

Taken together, these four learning processes are fundamental, interconnected means for cultivating’ professional literacy.

What would you add to this list?

Eliminating mindless professional development 

It’s essential that teachers’ professional development resemble in its learning processes the kinds of teaching and learning desired in all classrooms.

I made that point in a February 2013 post, and it is worth repeating here.

Mindless professional learning produces mindless teaching

The notes of the lecturer are passed to the notes of the listener – without going through the minds of either. – Mortimer Adler

Mortimer Adler succinctly describes the mindless learning that follows mindless teaching.

Visualize a continuum with that form of teaching and learning at one end. At the other end place the kind of teaching that produces high levels of engagement, meaningful involvement with the subject matter, and the acquisition and exercise of complex cognitive skills. (A good share of the teaching students experience each day falls between those two extremes.)

The professional learning of teachers and administrators can be placed along a similar continuum.

To update Adler’s description, at one end of the continuum the PowerPoint slides of the presenter are passed to the tweets of the students without going through the minds of either. 

At the other end is professional learning with qualities that closely resemble those described above for students—high levels of engagement, meaningful involvement with the subject matter, and the acquisition and exercise of complex cognitive skills.

In my experience, the kinds of teaching/learning processes used in professional development have a profound effect on the teaching/learning processes used in the vast majority of classrooms. Put another way, mindless professional learning produces mindless teaching. And vice versa.

The remedy is simple, but not easy: It’s essential that teachers’ professional learning resemble as closely as possible the kinds of teaching and learning desired in all classrooms.

That means that teachers will:

• spend much of their time in small, interdependent groups collaboratively solving important instructional problems;

• gain a deep understanding of important educational issues and their significance through intellectually-demanding learning processes—the close reading of professional materials, writing that extends learning, and dialogue;

• acquire and regularly apply complex cognitive skills in identifying and solving meaningful problems; and

• experience firsthand the value of the methods they are expected to use with their students.

Through mind-full experiences like those, teachers will continuously improve their practice for the benefit of all students.

Ideas that have shaped my life

Every important thing I know I have learned from other people or through conversations in which participants uncovered insights that were previously unknown to any of us.

But I often didn’t know at that time the significance of what I was learning. 

Some of those people I have encountered through books whose ideas affected me both personally and professionally. (Perhaps on another occasion I will recount the “right words at the right time” conversations that had a lasting effect on my life.)

Here are a few that made a lasting impression on me, some reaching back more than 40 years: 

Carl Rogers: Freedom to Learn and On Becoming a Person: Each of us has an impulse to grow and a sense of direction for that growth that has validity and can be trusted, particularly when explored with someone who offers “unconditional positive regard.”

William Glasser: Reality Therapy: Human problems ultimately have their roots in a lack of responsibility. An important goal in life and education is to learn how to behave responsibly. 

Parker Palmer: A Hidden Wholeness: Each of us has an inner self that requires attention and expression if we are to live a life that feels whole and satisfying.

Bruce Joyce and Emily Calhoun: Models of Professional Development: What Joyce and Calhoun offered me in this book and others was the explicit recognition of something I knew intuitively: Changing teaching practice is complicated. Training alone is insufficient to affect practice, or, as I eventually came to think of it, “Training without follow-up is malpractice.”

Thich Nhat Hanh: Peace Is Every Step: An unalterable attribute of life is impermanence, and one of the best ways of acknowledging it is to be fully present in each moment. (A close second in this category is Wherever You Go There You Are by Jon Kabat-Zinn who offers many practical suggestions for living a more mindful life.)

Peter Senge: The Learning Organization: The behavior of individuals is shaped by powerful and often invisible forces within the systems in which they live and work.

Alain de Botton: The Art of Travel: While, as the title implies, this book is about travel, it offers an approach to life which acknowledges that wherever we go we take our unique histories and emotional selves with us and suggests ways to be fully present in whatever we are doing.

What books (or articles) have had a lasting influence on your thinking and what you do each day?

Multi-generational resilience

Whatever struggle we have gone through remains, at heart, a human struggle. When we see our struggles in the stories of those who have gone before us, we feel less alone. We begin to see that there are sources of wisdom all around us. —Eric Greitens

Over the years I have supported dozens of hospice patients who near the end of their lives told and preserved their life stories for future generations.

These individuals often didn’t see their lives as having any special significance, but agreed to tell their stories at the urging of family members.

Although they never used the the term resilience, they shared stories of overcoming and the sometimes difficult lessons they had learned, stories that inspire and guide as they honor the storytellers and bear witness to their struggles.

“Knowing our history can make us more resilient, especially when we understand our connection to the people who went before us,” Eric Greitens writes in Resilience: Hard-Won Wisdom for Living a Better Life.

“[S]torytelling is not just a way to remember what happened; it’s a way to understand what happened. When you tell a story, you give an event meaning. In storytelling we bring past, present, and future together in a way that helps us to make sense of events and make sense of our lives….,” Greiten adds. “We honor the dead by living their values. Through our efforts, we ensure that the good things they stood for continue to stand even when they are gone. Our actions become a living memorial to their memory.”

To that end, I encourage you at every opportunity to ask elders to tell stories about personal or family resilience.

Listen deeply with empathy, and, when appropriate, encourage reflection on the lessons that might be drawn from the stories.

What life lessons did you learn from your ancestors or elders?

The link between “deep thought” and solitude

Depth of thought matters in classrooms, in meetings for decision making, and in meaningful professional learning.

While depth requires time, a lack of time is not a sufficient excuse. There is always time to do what matters, and depth always trumps superficiality.

Depth requires:

Intentionality;

Habits of mind and behavior that value slowness over speed, focus over multi-tasking, nuanced understanding over superficiality, and problem-solving over complaining;

Protocols that keep participants focused on paying attention to both the accomplishment of tasks and the quality of relationships; and

• Solitude.

Most of all, solitude.

Cal Newport offers 2 “lessons” about solitude:

“Lesson #1: The right way to define “solitude” is as a subjective state in which you’re isolated from input from other minds.

“When we think of solitude, we typically imagine physical isolation (a remote cabin or mountain top), making it a concept that we can easily push aside as romantic and impractical. But as this book makes clear, the real key to solitude is to step away from reacting to the output of other minds: be it listening to a podcast, scanning social media, reading a book, watching TV or holding an actual conversation. It’s time for your mind to be alone with your mind — regardless of what’s going on around you.

“Lesson #2: Regular doses of solitude are crucial for the effective and resilient functioning of your brain.

“Spending time isolated from other minds is what allows you to process and regulate complex emotions. It’s the only time you can refine the principles on which you can build a life of character. It’s what allows you to crack hard problems, and is often necessary for creative insight. If you avoid time alone with your brain your mental life will be much more fragile and much less productive.”

What are the conditions in your personal and professional lives that enable depth of thought?


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